The Cell Phone Addict: America’s Number 1 Problem

Perhaps several decades into the future, something will be written about this period of time indicating Cellular Phones were the start of the Great Society Revolution. It probably all started a few years back when Ross Perot was running for President and many of our fellow Americans felt he might actually be a good president. Cellular Phones were the cause of this.

You see, it is my belief those people who voted for Ross Perot in fact were also heavy users of Cellular Phones. They would hold the phone to the right ear near the part of the brain that is responsible for rational thinking, destroying some of the brain cells involved in the process. This rendered these people helplessly and hopelessly without rationality. It is with this in mind, I can actually declare Cellular Phones as the #1 problem with our society and it has become America’s #1 Addiction problem. What has happened to us? Cell phones are now apart of our life and many of us can’t live without it. We are cell phone junkies. If you have ever lost your cell phone, you know what I mean. You are lost. The phone however is OK.

Cellular phones: A Social Disease

I was in a restaurant last week, and a cell phone started to ring. All of a sudden like timed robots everyone’s hands went for their purse, pocket or belt and immediately raised their cell phone to answer the call. Others searched in a panic as they found out the number one communicating device might be missing. Even more remarkable, most decided to answer their phone anyway even though it was not ringing. It was like a bad lotto, where only one person won the prize. Most were disappointed to find the call wasn’t theirs. One person did get the call, and all of the people in the restaurant applauded. “Congratulations they said, all shouting with glee, maybe next time…it will be me! “

Cell phones have different rings. Some cell phones allow the user to choose from 150 different opera sonatas written by the great composers of our time, like Beethoven or Bach. Ask those users to name one of them. They can’t. As a matter of fact, when they select one of these classic pieces as the ‘Ring’ sound, it is always something they heard at one of the Bugs Bunny cartoons. Maybe that classic from the “Rabbit of Seville”.

Some even are practicing for the game show “Name that Tune”. You know, that’s where the contestants say they can name a tune in 6 notes and they play the six notes. If the contestant guesses the name of the melody, we have a winner! So there you go, flipping through all of the 150 tunes, never hearing the entire song. It’s like listening to a band tune up. With so many tunes to choose from why is it most people end up having the same tune? That’s why they all answer the phone at the same time when the are in a restaurant. Well, not exactly. Some answer their phone because they forgot which one they used as their ringing sound. So they pick up their phone just to be sure.

Some cell phones come equipped with games. People actually play them…by themselves. There is nothing spectacular about them as they are reinvented ‘Pong’ games of the late 70’s, early 80’s. So that’s where all of those Atari programmers went to! What is ridiculous is while you are playing these dimwit games, your battery is wearing down. Then, as you finally won the level 6 Guess the 3 Letter Word’ game, your cell phone rings. You answer it and as the person on the other line tells you that you have won a trip for two to Tahiti and $100,000, and you have ten seconds to answer the question: “What day of the week begins with the letter M “, your phone goes dead. Well at least you got to level 6 on the dimwitted Guess the 3 Letter Word game….

A friend of mine has a wireless telephone and he is in the scrap metal business. Everywhere he goes, he carries this cell phone and keeps it on. Who’s going to call him at 11:45 p.m. Saturday night? Some guy with a dozen aluminum cans to meltdown? I could understand if he was a brain surgeon or maybe a doctor on call, but a scrap metal dealer? He keeps his cell phone on because he is a Cell Phone Addict just like you and me.

Cell Phone Addicts Are Rude

It is amazing to see just how rude people are when it comes to cell phones. I remember the days when you would meet with someone and he would pick up a regular phone and say to his secretary “Hold all of my calls. I’m in a meeting”. It was only polite. Now, no one thinks twice about answering their cell phone in the middle of the conversation they are having with you. Obviously the person you were meeting with felt you weren’t as important as the other person on the line. In this Cell Phone world we live in, you get stopped in the middle of a sentence as the other person picks up the cell phone in one swooping motion and says ” Jack! Yea, nice game last month….Oh, I am not doing anything special at the moment…..sure I got a couple of hours to talk “…and you wait and wait and wait…..

I am tired of participating in other fellow cell phone addicts conversations. I was at Starbucks one morning ( I am also a coffee addict) when a lady came into the store still talking on her cell phone. In between her “Really. and you don’t say…”, she lifted the phone away from her mouth and ordered the Cafe Latt Grand Breve, Decaf. She proceeded to talk about her daughter and the troubles she is having adjusting to kindergarten. The people in the store actively participated in the conversation by saying things to her like ‘ get a life, will ya’ and ‘can you keep it down, I am trying to finish my conversation on my phone with the President of the United States!!!’. Even though we were all strangers, this person on the cell phone decided to share very personal information about her family and children. She was talking as if she was in her house. The next call was to her husband to make sure he takes out the garbage when he gets home, and the bank called saying they were late on their mortgage payments.

What about cell phones in movie theatres? They should be banned! Restaurants? They should be outlawed. At funerals? you should be ashamed of yourself! Do yourself a favor and turn that blasted cell phone off! You can live without it…just for a little while at least…

The Hazards of Cellular Telephone Usage

Cell phones are definitely a health hazard. This can be proven by simply placing your cell phone when it is transmitting near a TV screen, or the speakers at your computer. Even your radio in your car can pickup the microwave energy as it passes through the electrical wires. Birrrrrrrrrrrrrritatatatatatatatat. It’s the same sound that comes from your microwave oven. The cellular phone companies won’t admit the possibility that cell phones can damage your brain cells because to do so would put them out of business and in line for a tremendous amount of lawsuits. They even tried to change the name of the cell phone to ‘Wireless Telephones’ so you wouldn’t think of ‘Cell’ as in ‘Brain Cells’. You see they had learnt the lesson from the cigarette companies: You don’t admit anything!

Scientists tell you to use an ear piece and move the phone to your belt clip. This protects you from damaging any brain cells. The belt clip is located at hip level right where other organs are, such as the liver, stomach, kidneys, pancreas, spleen, intestines to name a few. As a matter of fact, they are not worried about frying these parts. They believe like many, cellular phones are the only true method of long-term Birth Control, given it’s proximity on the belt clip ( If you didn’t understand this one, your cell phone is too close to your right ear).

The Mystery of Cellular Telephone Communication

It is interesting how little knowledge people have when it comes to cell phones. My company ( a cell phone signal enhancement and jamming company:) ) gets calls from someone wanting to use his cell phone when the nearest tower is more than 100 miles away. Did you know you can only broadcast a short distance? That’s why they have cell towers set up all over the place. That is also why you only have a puny cell phone with puny batteries putting out only 3/5 of a watt. What?In order for your phone to broadcast 100 miles you need to have your cell phone connected to a diesel generator cranking away while all the animals around you get fried from the 100,000 watts of energy that you need to deliver your voice to the caller at the other end. “Can you hear me now?” you say as the cellular company drops your call again…. ( Note: Contrary to the claim by a popular cellular provide, I actually coined the phrase ” Can you hear me now?” when I first wrote an article in 2001)

To put it in proper perspective, the light at the end of a flashlight uses 10 times more energy (7 watts) then your cell phone. The average household light bulb use 60 watts which is 100 times more energy than your cell phone. The Microwave oven, which also uses microwaves just like the cellular telephone consumes 1000 watts which is 1670 times more energy than your little itty bitty wireless telephone.

So why would anyone think that their cell phone with the puny.6 watts of output could reach more than 100 miles, when for the most part they lose the signal? It’s the destroyed brain cells doing this, the Ross Perot syndrome.

Cellular Phone Manufacturers: Sub-Total Quality Management

Cell phone manufacturers do have a sense of humor. Take a look at that antenna they give you on most phones. It’s a piece of plastic similar to the fake cell phone that your 2 year old kid has. Come to think of it is exactly like the cell phone that your 2 year old kid has. The antenna does nothing. I know it’s a shocker, but the little piece of plastic lifted a few inches out of the plastic phone is useless. As a matter of fact, some companies have a series of phones with no plastic antenna to stick out. Now there is nothing to bite on when the cell phone company drops your call.

The people that manufacture cell phones all got our number right. What they do is produce a new model every two months that doesn’t even take the previous model’s batteries or accessories. What’s the deal here? It’s bad enough that cell phones can’t use “triple A”, “double A” batteries but the same company can’t even standardize them so that we don’t have to dip into our pockets every time some other feature comes out. Come to think of it, if my CD Player uses the same batteries as my Penlight flashlight, why can’t cellular manufactures use these batteries as well?

These wireless telephones are being produced in all kinds of sizes and varieties. Some are large some small and some are so small that I am afraid of swallowing it as I scream a the person at the other end of the call asking them “Can you hear me now!!!!?” The best are those ‘Flip Phones’ or as I like to refer them, Broken Flip Phones. Motorola invented them and just look at how bad that company is doing. They got the idea from Star Trek. You know…the communicator. But on Star Trek, the communicator also doubled as a Phaser. It’s tough enough to get your cell phone to work as a communicator. As an addict we demand better Cell Phones!

Cellular Phone Lack of Communication Companies

Cell phone companies are allowed to drive you crazy. I think it is part of the FCC licensing requirements. Cellular communication companies all allow you to dial a call, and then, while you are in the middle of a conversation, they disconnect. But the aggravating part is that it just doesn’t disconnect. Instead the signal moves in an out back and forth and makes you sound like your are in a toilet some of the time. (oh ya, cell phones should be banned from toilets also, it’s quite scary hearing a person talking to themselves in the stall beside you). This all happens while you keep repeating the magic Make My Phone Work Please phrase: ” Hello? Can you hear me now? “. Then to make things even worse you start walking around like a chicken pecking at corn kernels looking for that one spot where the signal will be stronger. I am sure you could swear that your cell phone works better at one particular spot in your house than in another. The question is: Why are you using your cell phone in your house? Use the land line phone. At least there is a copper wire connected and it doesn’t cost you money like a taxi in traffic!

Another nightmare is trying to figure out which cell phone company is offering the best possible plan. It is confusing and they do it on purpose! They offer you 600 prime time minutes and 600 nighttime minutes. Then, as a bonus for believing their spiel, they throw in 200 anytime minutes, and a calling card that you can’t use on Tuesdays. You can’t use the prime time minutes at night and the nighttime minutes during the day. Then they hit you with weekend minutes. Hey. Wait a Minute! All they are doing is finding a way to confuse you so they can rip off your precious time and money! How about those dropped call minutes or those “I can’t hear you… can you hear me ” minutes that you are paying for. Can we get credit for them and turn them into anytime minutes that you can use on weekends? I wonder if I can just have the last 10 minutes of any hour. What would they charge me for that? At least with the land line phone I knew where I stood. I want one of those companies to be honest enough to tell you that they can offer the cheapest plan for the same lousy service as anyone else. Just when you think you got the best plan, you get your first bill. The $40 a month plan is now costing you $70 and the $90 a month plan is costing you $120. How is this possible? Government. They take out a piece of you hide every chance they get. As much as 30% gets added to your bill as hidden franchise fees, county and state taxes. The disgusting thing about this is that Government is taxing your personal conversations. The more you talk the more they get..and some of us talk a lot. We are addicts!

Cellular Phone Addicts: A Road Hazard

Laws are being passed requiring any one that drives a car to use a hands free system so that their complete attention is focused on driving the car. The government is doing this because they have a sense of humor. They know just how stupid you look when you have this thing sticking out of your ear and your are talking while someone who just pulled up beside you at a light is looking your way. They see you talking to yourself. What is even funnier is that you actually go through the hand motions and head jerks just as if the person was sitting right beside you. You are still preoccupied with the telephone conversation and your hands free is just that. One hand on the wheel and the other making gestures. It probably would be better if the other hand was holding the phone…this way you wouldn’t look like such an idiot.

What really is ridiculous is that our government is talking about passing a law stopping people from using wireless phones in a car while they are driving. Why the sudden concern? It is because Cell Phones are popular and this is a fresh issue, making easy for politicians to deflect our attention from the real problem in South Florida: Bad Drivers. We still have people in this state with driver licenses that can’t see or can’t even drive. At our post office a person, with a valid Florida State drivers license, pressed the wrong pedal and accelerated their car over the sidewalk and into the glass store front injuring several people. It happens all the time. You don’t have to worry about people like this having a cell phone taking their attention away. What you need the government to do is pass a law that requires testing of everyone and taking those people that don’t know how to drive or, can’t see, off the road. In fact, give them each a cell phone. That way they can call a taxi, and our roads will be a safer place. After that happens, then tackle the ‘cell phone used by the driver’ problem.

So that’s what I feel about the cell phones and cell phone industry. It has developed all of us into dimwitted addicts that are part of the rude manner-less society fully controlled by cell phone batteries. I thought someday I would invent Cellular Tele-Pa-thetic Communication that might cure us of this addiction so that we can all go back to not talking to each other… face to face. We need to be cured! ” Do you hear me now?”

The Cell Phone Mysteries – What Are Dual, Tri and Quad Band Cell Phones and Where Will They Work?

The world of the mobile phone is a confusing one these days, particularly for those wondering how to start a cell phone business. Few things are perhaps as confusing as GSM frequencies and GSM phones that seem to work in some parts of the world but not in others.

Multiple band cell phones and GSM frequencies can be especially confusing for anyone wondering how to start a cell phone business.

So what is the background behind the GSM network?

The GSM network was first suggested by a group of European technicians and policy makers in 1982 and it didn’t take long for consumers and phone makers to adopt the new network after it first emerged in 1991. It wasn’t long before there was growing GSM coverage in an increasing number of countries.

The GSM world grew quickly. There were more than one million subscribers spread over 70 carriers in 30 countries by the end of 1993.

Not only did the new GSM mobile network send and receive all of its information digitally, making it the first 2G mobile phone to be developed it also gave users a great deal of freedom on what they did with it. For the first time they were able to send short written messages to each other for a fraction of the price of a phone call, they could change their carrier and/or go to a different country without getting a new phone.

All they needed to do was to take one GSM SIM card out and replace it with another GSM card and they were in business.

But, as the unknown powers of the world decree, things shouldn’t be that easy and the GSM frequencies set by most of the GSM networks had already been assigned to other purposes by the powers that be.

So, in a situation very similar to TV watchers and people with surveillance systems, a phone that worked in Sussex England wouldn’t pick up anything in San Antonio in the US. Basically it wasn’t a case of one GSM frequency fits all.

As a result, many cell phone makers create cell phones that can work with more than one band with some working with as many as 4 bands.

Still this doesn’t mean there aren’t questions and people are often left asking:

  • What is GSM?
  • What are the GSM frequencies?
  • Why do GSM phones have more than one band?
  • Will different frequencies work in different areas?
  • How can I check if a phone will work in a particular area?
  • How are multiple band phones defined and where will they work?

We’re going to attempt to look at those questions in this article.

What is GSM? GSM, Global System for Mobile communications (or the Acronym formally known as Groupe Spécial Mobile) is a wireless transmission standard used for mobile phones and, recently wireless modems. GSM and CDMA differ because GSM networks use a SIM card to store all the necessary information to send and receive calls where with CDMA phones everything is kept on the phones.

If you are looking at how to start a cell phone business and you don’t have thousands in working capital GSM mobile phones will probably be a better option than CDMA as they won’t be attached to a particular carrier and don’t require you to be licensed to a particular provider to sell unlocked cell phones.

Another reason to select GSM over CDMA is that it will open up the potential customer base for each phone. As unlocked gsm phones can be used with any GSM networks. To date there is no such thing as an unlocked CDMA phone. When it comes to cell phone plans most providers (especially those in the states) love CDMA phones because it locks their consumers to them.

Why do GSM phones have more than one band? GSM Phones come with more than one band so that they will work in more than one country as there is more than one GSM frequency and they are not universally transmitted.

As a result, wholesale cellphone manufacturers make GSM and GPRS phones with multiple cell phone bands so that they can work in multiple countries. Most cell phones work on two, three or even four bands. Quad band phones are the most flexible as they can be used all over the world and are often called international phones as a result.

How are multiple band phones defined and where will they work? Multiple band phones are usually defined by how many GSM frequencies they can operate on and usually come in four different categories, dual band, tri band and quad band. If thinking about how to start a cell phone business it is important to remember the different type of bands as it could mean the difference between your customer getting a high performance phone that they’re happy with and can and them getting a shiny and costly paperweight.

Dual band phone works with two GSM frequencies and, depending on where the phone is made will probably work for the frequencies 900MHz and 1800MHz. These phones are usually less expensive than other types of cell phone and it can be a good way to get a cheap cell phone that will still send SMS MMS and act as a WAP cell phone.

The tri band phone runs on three frequencies and can be used in most countries. This unlocked GSM cell phone is a cheaper option than the quad band phone but safer than a dual band phone.

Quad band phones, or international phones as they are sometimes called, use four bands and can be used anywhere in the world. If you are looking to start a mobile phone business and you wonder what is an unlocked phone guaranteed to sell well and give you the least trouble with customers it will probably be this type of cellphone.

What Are The GSM Frequencies? Almost all of the world works on the frequencies 850Mhz, 900MHz, 1800MHz, 1900Mhz and in some rare circumstances 400MHz although there are some other frequencies in other locations.

Thankfully too areas where each frequencies work is fairly easy to define in the very general sense (although it always pays to check). So when you’re looking for what areas a cellular phone will work in you should be able to follow a rough guide.

So which areas use GSM 900 and 1800 MHZ signals and which areas use the GSM 850Mhz and 1900MHz frequencies can usually be broken into two groups.

If you are traveling in with your cell phone in Oceania, Africa, Europe, Asia (except for Japan and Korea), the Middle East, Brazil and the Baltic region and looking for roaming networks then mobile network coverage will be either 900MHz, 1800MHz or 900MHz and 1800MHz.

If you are looking for a GSM world phone that will work in the US or South America then you’re better sticking with a wireless cell phone that’ll work on the 850Mhz and 1900MHz bands.

Will different frequencies work in different areas? With the majority of the GSM world being broken into two main groups (those that take Most of the GSM world is roughly broken up into four main frequencies 900MHz and/or 1800MHz and 850Mhz and/or 1900MHz most unlocked GSM phones will work on one, two or three of the GSM frequencies around the world giving you some level of international roaming on an unlocked phone.

However, you possibly won’t get any joy if for example you take a dual band phone designed for Europe and Asia and then try to use that bluetooth phone in the US.

How can I check if a phone will work in a particular area? There are two ways to check if a phone will work in a particular area; the first is to get the phone band, which can usually be found on the product description.

If you’re working through how to start a cell phone business and considering phones to stock, it doesn’t matter if you’re thinking about a multimedia mobile, WAP phone or GSM watch phone, the process should be the same. If you are sourcing cell phones from a wholesale supplier or wholesale dropship vendor put the ball into their court. They should have that information on their website or product advertising material for the unlocked cell phone.

Once you’ve got the GSM frequency the GSM phone worked on you can make sure it will work in your area.

If you are looking for a cellphone for yourself this could be as easy as calling your local service provider, or looking it up on sites like GSMworld dot com or worldtimezones dot com.

If you are wondering how to start a cell phone business then your best course of action is to list the frequencies on the description for the GSM cell phone, along with the phone’s other features (like if it is a music phone or it has a good cell phone camera) and tell the person who wants to buy unlocked cell phones from you which parts of the world it will probably work in.

So it looks like cell phone bands and GSM frequencies aren’t that scary after. It’s just a case of knowing where to look and ensuring you’ve got the right phone for the right location.

Cell Phone Safety – How to Be a Responsible Driver

Introduction

Studies have shown that using a cell phone while driving does increase the risk of a crash, but the amount of increased risk is still difficult to be known. It is agreed, however, that talking on a cell phone while operating a vehicle is a distraction that may impair driving ability, especially teenagers who are sometime easily occupied by other things. The aim of this paper is to present available data concerning the impact that cell phone use has on driving ability and increasing crash risk. In November 1, 2001, the State of New York enacted a law banning all drivers regardless of age from talking on a handheld cell phone while driving the vehicles. The move was later followed by the state of North Carolina, who on December 1, 2006, although the programs were not relatively same in term of who they were trying to reach, began prohibiting use of any cell phone communication device by drivers younger than 18 years old.

These studies were done to reduce risks to teenagers drivers and people of all ages by reducing highway deaths and injuries, reducing higher crash risk for teenagers due to their greater difficulty handling distractions and their high use rates of cell phone and other communication devices and to add restriction on graduated driver’s license along with the expectation that it would be viewed, accepted and enforced in the same way as is the case for the other protective elements of the graduated licensing system. In the North Carolina’s teenager drivers’ cell phone restriction, there were two or more exceptions for teenagers drivers to use cell phones while on public roads. These exceptions include talking to a teenager’s parent or legal guardian or talking to emergency response operator, hospital, physician’s office or health clinic, a private or privately owned ambulance company or service, fire department or law enforcement agency regarding an emergency situation. In New York, the exceptions were limited only to placing an emergency phone call to 911, calling or using a hands-free device, manual dialing or using a handheld phone when the vehicle is stopped.

Goals of the studies

The goal of the studies is to see whether the ban on cell phones use in two states, New York and North Carolina has led to reduction in car related deaths and injuries on public roads.

Aim and Objectives

The aim of these studies is to undertake an evaluation of the longer term effects of New York State’s law on drivers’ handheld cell phone use and the short term effects of a teenage drivers cell phone restriction in the state of North Carolina to determine the impact on all stakeholders and assess the effects on any issues relating to the quality and effectiveness of the cell phones use. The objectives of these studies are to:
• Determine whether cell phone users see the ways in which the states operate as useful, appropriate and effective way to reduce highway related deaths and injuries.
• Determine whether substantial short term declines in drivers’ use of cell phones and other communication devices after a ban, were sustained one or more years later
• Assess the implementation of the program and the extent to which they meet their goals
• Assess the impact of the cell phones use on the cell phone users/ other key stakeholders
• Assess planning and monitoring mechanisms used by each state at its local level

Methodology/Design

To ensure a comprehensive evaluation design, the qualitative arm of the studies included focus groups, observation surveys to measure the extent to which the new restriction affected teenagers’ cell phone use while driving, telephone interviews by professional telephone interview organizations with the focus to sampled randomly households using a list of households in North Carolina believed to have one or more teenagers ages 16 or 17. Pilot testing with the focus on observing drivers in the morning and pre-law observation which was conducted five months after the law went into effect were also used. In North Carolina observers attempted to gather information on how a cell phone was used, for example, held to ear, visual evidence of dialing, text messaging or game playing or evidence of hands free use. Information on type of phone use was not recorded in New York State. In New York, daytime observations of drivers were conducted at controlled intersections on geographically dispersed, heavily traveled roads in four small to medium sized upstate communities such as Albany, Binghamton, Kingston and the village of Spring Valley. Observations were conducted on Thursday and Friday in seven observation period throughout the day. Approaching vehicles in the closest two lanes were observed by a person positioned at the roadside at or near the intersection. Excluded in the observations process in the New York State were emergency vehicles, tractor-trailer trucks and buses. In state of North Carolina, no particular groups were excluded in the observations process.

The pre-law interviews were conducted on November 2006 in North Carolina with 400 groups of parents and teenagers and post-law interviews on April 2007 with relatively same groups of parents (401). Interview completion rates, those who complete interview with both parents and teenager from the same household, were 72% and 67% in the pre-law and post-law surveys while in New York State (based on December 2001 pre-law and march 2002 post-law surveys combined) use rates by driver characteristics were calculated and differences were judged only if the 95% confidence intervals of the estimated use rates did no overlap. In North Carolina cell phone use rates were similar for males and females while cell phone use rates were higher for drivers younger than 25 than for drivers ages 26-60 in New York. However, the differences were not significant. Five counties were identified in North Carolina for study (Buncombe, Guilford, Mecklenburg, Orange, and Wake County). The counties selected represented the most populous areas in the state and ranged in population from 120,000 to 825,000 each according to U.S. Census Department’s 2007 North Carolina statistics. Within each county, schools were selected for observation based on the sufficiently large number of teenager drivers (approximately 100 or more and the approach roadways and parking configurations at schools that allowed for observation of most teenage drivers when departing. Separate focus groups in both states involving parents, school staff and external stakeholders were held in each state. A total of 27 focus groups were conducted across the North Carolina. All regional line managers of Telephone Interview, a professional organization contracted by state’s mobile phone health program were also involved in individual interviews.

Studies examining the effects of age on crash rates among drivers with limited experience also were not considered. Although these studies have found clear age effects, they failed to address the effects of experience. Similarly excluded were studies examining the effects of experience on crash among drivers of a limited age ranges. These studies demonstrated that 16 and 17 years old beginners had high crash risk because of driving inexperience but did not address the effects of age. Finally, the review excluded three studies of the effects of age and experience on motorcycle crashes because it was not clear the findings could be generalized to other crash types. Motorcycle travel is inherently more hazardous than travel by other types of vehicles, and crash-involved motorcyclists differ from other crash-involved drivers in important respects.

Measurement issues

In terms of variables, the studies were using pre-law observations, drivers’ handheld cell use rate, drivers characteristics, phone us/ nonuse, driver gender, belt use, number and gender of passenger such as all male, all female or mixed and vehicle type, for example, car, SUV, pickup truck or ban. In the state of New York, the measurement was on cell phone use rates by driver gender, age and which type of vehicle. Use rates by driver characteristics were calculated for the pre-law survey (December 2001, March 2002 and March 2003 surveys combined). Differences were judged significant if 95% interval of the estimated use rates did not change. For all survey in New York and North Carolina, cell phone rates were similar for males and females regardless of age. Use rate were higher for drivers younger than 25 than for drivers ages 25 to 59 in New York, but the differences were not significant. Use among drivers ages 60 and older was negligible across all surveys in New York. With regard to which vehicle type, drivers of cars had the lowest use rate, but only the difference between drivers of cars and drivers of SUV was significant in all New York surveys, but remain unknown in the North Carolina surveys.

Data to develop different measures, for example, crash and exposure measures sometimes were collected at different times and or pertained to different time periods. Injury crash rates for drivers licensed 12 months versus 1+ years computed by age and gender. Multiple regression models were also developed. Some relative risks calculations provided for experience effects among younger drivers. Overall positive age effects for males were similar but weaker effect for females. Among novice males, crash rates similar for ages 16 and 17, and 18 but much lower at age 17; among novice females, rates higher at 16 than 17 to 19. Crash risk lower among male or female novice versus experienced drivers for ages 16 to 25. No marked experience effects among older females or males. Since none of these studies has talk about it, in the future we might need to look into the annual miles driven, miles driven during previous year, and miles driven during previous week by drivers regardless of ages to come up with outcomes.

Outcomes

• More drivers, both teenagers in North Carolina and all drivers in New York, stops driving while talking on handheld cell phones due to threat of ticket.
• More cell phone use while driving has resulted in citations being issued to increase public perception that state government is serious about the cell phones use while driving on public roads.
• Increases in hand-free device technologies due to pressure from the state government
• Reduction in number of deaths and injuries sustained by drivers driving while on handheld cell phone in New York and North Carolina
To achieve these outcomes the followings have to happens based on the studies’ conclusions
• Threat of imprisonment- which the two states have not yet adopted
• Parental involvement- which north Carolina state has already adopted
• Parental supervision- none of the states is in position to adopt the strategy
• Law enforcement agencies taking tough stands against those who disobey the laws

Statistical Analysis

Estimates were derived of the proportion of drivers in qualifying vehicles who were using handheld cell phones in New York and of teenagers’ drivers who were talking on handheld cell phones while driving in North Carolina. Ironically, changes in phone use rates between the post-law and pre-law surveys in each state were examined, with 95% confidence interval for relative rates obtained in North Carolina. In New York, rates were compared between the pre-law and post-law and short term post-law surveys with associated 95% confidence intervals. Assuming that patterns cell phone use among teenagers’ drivers in North Carolina would have followed situations observed among drivers in New York, absent North Carolina’s restriction on teenagers’ drivers cell phones use, logic regression analysis made a direct statistical comparison between the changes observed in cell phone use rates in New York relative to the observed change in a teenagers’ drivers cell phones use in North Carolina. The estimated percentage change in use rates in New York relative to those percentage changes in North Carolina based on the ratio of “after” and “before” odds ratios, car type, driver gender and passenger presence were a functions of the model coefficient for the interaction variable. Differences in survey responses between teenagers and their parents were tested for statistical significance using chi-square tests of independence while cell phones use were observed using drivers characteristics observed during the 10 minute observations of passing traffic and applied to the total vehicles counted during the 35 minute cell phone observation periods.

The methods and findings of the two studies are summarized in and grouped according to whether driving exposure was considered in addition to age and years of driving experience. Data were obtained from self-reported driver surveys or from government records such as driver’s license records, police crash reports, or insurance claims files. The lower age limit ranged from 16 to 18, and the upper age limit ranged from 25 to 70 and older. The lower bound for years of driving experience generally was 1 year or less, and the upper bound ranged from 2 years to 38 years or more. The primary measures of exposure were cell phone citations issued during the first 15 months, gender drivers’ ages and the vehicle type (Car, SUVs or van). During the 2006, actually two to eight weeks before the implementation of the cell phones ban, phone use was observed for 6,164 teenage drivers in North Carolina and 1,257 in New York for all drivers. In the beginning of the following year, approximately 5 months after the ban implementation, phone use was observed for 6,401 teenage drivers in North Carolina and 25,694 in New York. Characteristics of the samples observed were similar in both New York and North Carolina. In the pre-law survey approximately half of observed teenage drivers were male in North Carolina (47%) while both male and female were observed in New York (2.3% to 1.1% immediately after the law took effect). There was not significant change in observations during the post-law in both states. About half of teenage drivers were observed driving alone (without passengers) in North Carolina (52%) and none was reported for the New York.